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Athabasca University

A History of Italian–Canadian Writing

by Joseph J. Pivato

Contents

What is Italian-Canadian Writing?

Italian-Canadian writing is a body of literature produced by writers of Italian background living in Canada. Some were born in Italy others were born in Canada, still others in the U.S. This writing exists in English, in French, in Italian and in some Italian dialects. It is identifiable as a body of literature because of several characteristics: the critical mass of writing itself is impressive and is produced by over 100 authors; these books can be listed in detail in bibliographies; despite the fact that it is in different languages, the writing shares many thematic similarities; the writing has received critical recognition both inside and outside the Italian community; the writing has been anthologized in several collections; the writing is being studied in schools and universities; and the writing is used as an example by other ethnic minority writers.

While this literature exists in Canada and is often considered part of Canadian Literature it is different from mainstream Canadian writing because it demonstrates not only a consciousness of another country, Italy, but also an attachment to it. This writing also exists in Italian, which raises the question: can Canadian Literature be in Italian? It has always been accepted that the national literature of Canada exits in English and French. Can other languages be part of this national canon? And here other languages can include: German and Chinese, Ukrainian and Japanese, Urdu and Spanish, Cree and Inuktituk.

Gens Du Silence. Marco Micone (Book Cover)

In Italy the Italian writing produced in Canada is not part of the national institution of writing in that country. Rather it is part of an expatriate literature of writers outside Italy, or writers in the world. In many ways it does not fit into the 600-year old tradition of Italian letters.

Many Italian writers in Quebec publish in French and so in some ways are considered part of Quebecois literature. One of these, Marco Micone, produced the first play in French that deals with Italians in Quebec, Gens du Silence (1980). There is a growing French literature in Quebec produced by people who are not born in that territory and so do not identify with Quebec nationalism. Such a group is the Haitian writers. This leads us to the subject of the relationship between Italian-Canadian writing and that of many other ethnic minority groups in Canada such as the South Asian community, the West Indian community, and the Chinese community. As this literature reflects the immigrant experience in Canada, there are many parallels among these different writers. See George Elliott Clarke.

Brief Early History

When did Italian-Canadian writing begin? The first Italians to reach the shores of what is now Canada were explorers. Giovanni Caboto landed here in 1497 and was the first to write about what he saw. His captain's log may have read something like this,"Today we found a new land. When we went ashore to claim our discovery we found great forests, some wild animals, but no people, though we did see smoke rising in the distance. Tomorrow we will explore inland and see if we can find the inhabitants of this country...." But since Caboto, later called John Cabot, was sailing for the king of England, Henry VII, he probably wrote these words in Latin, rather than in Italian, or English. As far as we know he did not make contact with the native population.

Image of Caboto

In 1524 another Italian explorer, Giovanni Da Verrazzano sailed for King Francis I of France and charted the east coast of North America, naming part of it Nuova Gallia and Nouvelle France. Da Verrazzano was probably the first to write down the words New France, thus naming the new territories of Canada in terms of European geography. Da Verrazzano wrote a long report in Latin on his voyage of discovery for King Francis I, Codex de Cellere, which still exists in libraries in the Vatican, Florence and New York. Da Verrazzano was killed by hostile Natives on his voyage in 1528; one of his crew members was Jacques Cartier who continued these French explorations on his own later voyages.

When we use the term Italian for these centuries of European history we must remember that the people living on the Italian peninsula are not a unified nation as France, England or Spain are at this time, but a collection of city states, principalities, papal states and territories often occupied by foreign powers like Spain, France and the Germans of the Holy Roman Emperor. Giovanni Caboto was a Venetian navigator. Venice had been an independent republic for several hundred years. Caboto was from Genova like Colombo, but his family moved to Venice. Giovanni Da Verrazzano was from Florence like Amerigo Vespucci.

The first Italian visitor to Canada who wrote about his experiences in Italian for an Italian audience was Francesco Giuseppe Bressani, a Jesuit missionary who worked in New France from 1642 to 1650. His long work, Breve Relatione (1653), demonstrates Bressani's conscious effort to look at Canada and its Native people from an Italian perspective and with terms of reference that are Italian rather than French. His Breve Relatione later became part of the massive documentation called The Jesuit Relations. Bressani's account is the only part that is in Italian, the rest of The Jesuit Relations is in French or Latin.

There were many Italian explorers and soldiers with the French in North America. In 1682 Enrico Tonti assisted Robert de La Salle to explore the Mississippi. In 1759 Francesco Carlo Burlamacchi was a general in the army of Montcalm during the battle of Quebec. There were Italian soldiers in the de Meuron Regiment and the Watteville Regiment who settled in Canada in 1816. Did any of these people write back to relatives and friends in Italy about their experiences in Canada? Descendants of these soldiers included Monsignor Paolo Bruchesi, Bishop of Montreal (1897-1939) and Quebec historian, Jean Bruchesi.

There were several Italian writers and books by Italians living in Canada, but they did not constitute a conscious literature. Most were individual works produced by isolated writers who did not see themselves as creators of a new literature but as Italian writers in exile, or travellers or as writers in Canada who adopted the new language. Antonio Gallenga produced Episodes of My Second Life (1884) which includes a chapter on his year in Nova Scotia. Writers like A.A. Nobile and Anna Moroni were visitors to Canada, as was the inventor Marconi. Most of the poetry of Liborio Lattoni appeared in Italian papers. Francesco Gualtieri's poetry has disappeared but we have his brief social history, We Italians: A Study in Italian Immigration in Canada (1928).

The most controversial writer of the 1940s is Mario Duliani who came to Canada in 1936 to work for La Presse in Montreal. In 1940 when Canada entered the Second World War Duliani and several hundred other men of Italian origin were arrested and interned as enemy aliens. During his internment camp stay Duliani began to write an account of this experience which he published in 1945 as La ville sans femmes. In 1946 he brought out an Italian version, Citta senza Donne. This book remained forgotten until the 1970s when Italian-Canadian writers began uncovering old copies of either the French or Italian editions. Was Duliani a Fascist Party member? Was he a Fascist supporter or just a naive nationalist Italian? To help to answer these questions Antonino Mazza translated the Italian edition into English for the first time as The City Without Women (1994).

The first resident woman writer of Italian background was Elena Maccaferri Randaccio who published Canada mia seconda patria in 1958 under the pen-name Elena Albani. In 1959 Mario Duliani wrote a book review of Canada, mia seconda patria. This is the only extant evidence that there was a spark of an Italian writing community in Montreal. In 1979 she published Dario di una emigrante under the name E. MacRan.

In the 1950s Italian language papers did flourish in both Toronto and Montreal, but there was little literary activity in these weekly periodicals. When Antonio Spada published his social history, The Italians in Canada (1969), he included a few pages on writers. Among the authors he described briefly are Mario Duliani, Elena Albani, John Robert Colombo, Jean Bruchesi, Guglielmo Vangelisti and a few birds of passage like Giose Rimanelli. Vangelisti produced a history, Gli Italiani in Canada (1956). Camillo Menchini published histories of Caboto, Verrazzano and Bressani. Toronto journalist Gianni Grohovaz published his Italian poetry in the 1970s and 80s. His narrative of the 1950s, Strada Bianca, was published posthumously in 1989.

Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada (Book Cover)

In the 1960s and 1970s the sons and daughters of the great post-war immigration from Italy started to attend universities in Canada. This is also the period of the great awakening in Canadian nationalism reflected in English Canadian literature. Young Italian-Canadian writers were influenced by this spirit promoting cultural identity and diversity in Canada. In Quebec the 1960s is the time of the Quiet Revolution and here too Italians become conscious of the search for cultural identity. For the first time a large group of university-educated young people provided the critical mass to create a community of writers, artists, film-makers, musicians and academics.

This was also the time when historian, Robert Harney, began to publish his articles on the immigration of Italians to Canada and thus fostered more research in the social history of ethnicity. Harney's pioneering work encouraged a whole generation of young scholars to study the history of Italian settlement in Canada. These researchers included Franc Sturino, Bruno Ramirez, John Zucchi, Roberto Perin, Gabriele Scardellato and Franca Iacovetta; people who often worked with writers on conferences and publications devoted to the study of the Italian-Canadian community. One such historic event was an international conference on "Writing About the Italian Immigrant Experience in Canada" held in Rome in May, 1984, at the Canadian Academic Centre in Italy. The conference organizer, Roberto Perin and Franc Sturino later edited a collection of papers from this meeting, Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada (1989).

Recent History

Italian-Canadian literature began with Pier Giorgio Di Cicco in about 1975. This writer was the first person to realize that the possibility for a distinct body of literature did exist in Canada. As an editor for the Ontario literary magazine, Books in Canada, Pier Giorgio became aware of a number of young writers of Italian background who were just then beginning to publish in literary magazines and with small presses. On November 5, 1976 Pier Giorgio Di Cicco wrote to me from Toronto about his planned anthology. I sent him some of my poems as did 15 other writers from across Canada, and in the summer of 1978 Roman Candles was published. The experience was both exciting and shocking. We were happy with the reception of this first anthology of Italian-Canadian poetry, but we were shocked as well by the realization that we had discovered a literature about ourselves, and the great responsibility which this entailed. This is where Italian-Canadian literature begins: with a self-conscious realization about our writing. Di Cicco clearly articulates this self-awareness in the introduction to Roman Candles:

In searching for contributors, I found isolated gestures by isolated poets, isolated mainly by the condition of nationalism prevalent in Canada in the last ten years. However pluralistic the landscape seemed to be to sociologists, the sheer force of Canadianism had been enough to intimidate all but the older "unofficial-language" writers. Some of the contributors I had already been aware of through their publishing efforts, but most came as a surprise; and finally, all involved were surprised by the anthology itself. It put a stop to the aforementioned isolationism. (p. 9)

1983 photo: Frank Paci reading at Athabasca University with H. Kreisel, centre, and Prof. Joe Pivato, left

That year Frank Paci published his first novel, The Italians (1978) which was to become a best-seller. He followed this with the powerful, Black Madonna (1982). At the same time in Quebec Marco Micone had staged Gens du silence(1980) published in French in 1982 and in English as Voiceless People (1984). Di Cicco had already published The Tough Romance in 1979. These are the first important texts which stimulated the growing realization about the possibility of an Italian identity in Canada.

Soon Mary di Michele brought out Mimosa and other poems (1981), D'Alfonso Black Tongue (1983), Mary Melfi A Queen is Holding a Mummified Cat (1982), Fulvio Caccia, Irpinia (1983), Filippo Salvatore, Suns of Darkness (1980), and Maria Ardizzi published Made in Italy (1982) in both her Italian and the English translation, Caterina Edwards The Lion's Mouth (1982). Marco Micone produced Addolorata (1984), Caccia, Scirocco (1985), D'Alfonso, The Other Shore (1985). The list goes on and includes Amprimoz, Amabile, Caticchio, Mazza, Costa, De Franceschi, Gasparini, Gunn, Loriggio, Michelut, Minni, Oliva, Rossi, Zagolin, and others. For the book titles consult the bibliography below or go to Ethnic Minority Writing link or consult the bibliographies in my books, Contrasts (1991) and Echo (1994).

A mere six years after Roman Candles Caroline Morgan Di Giovanni edited Italian Canadian Voices (1984) the first anthology of this writing which tried to represent it as a body of literature. There were other anthologies which collected works from groups of writers: La poesia italiana nel Quebec (1983), edited by Tonino Caticchio, Quetes: Textes d'auteurs italo-quebecois (1983), edited by Caccia and D'Alfonso, Ricordi: Things Remembered (1989) Ed. C.D. Minni and A Furlan Harvest (1993) Ed. Dore Michelut.

An important event occurred in 1978-79: the founding of Guernica Editions by Antonio D'Alfonso which has published writers working in English, French and Italian, and has promoted translations among these languages. Guernica operated out of Montreal as a trilingual press, but in 1994 it moved to Toronto and now concentrates on English language books. Guernica has become a successful press in the volume and quality of its books. With over 100 active writers and several hundred titles it is the major Italian-Canadian-American press in North America.

In addition to publishing many of these writers for the first time Guernica also began to publish critical studies. The first was Contrasts: Comparative Essays on Italian-Canadian Writing (1985) edited by J. Pivato (see link to Ethnic Minority Writing).

Conferences

1986 photo L-R: Roberta Sciff-Zamaro, Pasquale Verdicchio, Marco Micone, Antonio D’Alfonso, Ken Norris, & Joe Pivato in Vancouver

In addition to producing anthologies the writers organized conferences to study the growing self-awareness of their ethnic identity. Many had been to the Rome conference of 1984 and saw the value of this direct contact. In 1986 one group of writers in Vancouver, Dino Minni, Genni Gunn and Anna Foschi, organized the first national conference of Italian-Canadian writers for September. Hosted by the Italian Cultural Centre in Vancouver this event also premiered Micone's play, Voiceless People. By the end of this historic meeting the Association of Italian-Canadian Writers was founded to promote the work of these writers and continue to foster a sense of community across the country.

The second national conference of the Association of Italian-Canadian Writers (AICW) was held at York University in Toronto in March, 1988. The organizer, Joe Pivato, held The M. A. Elia Chair in Italian-Canadian Studies at York that year and thus the Elia Chair was the official host. By this point the AICW had a regular newsletter sent across the country and beyond, and a growing membership. The Italian Cultural Centre Society of Vancouver established a literary award, The Bressani Prize which promoted ethnic minority writing in Canada.

The third national conference was held at Carleton University in Ottawa, in October, 1990, organized by Francesco Loriggio. The theme was Pluralism and Literature and included the participation of three Italian-Australian writers: Giovanni Andreoni, Gaetano Rando and Anna Maria Guidi. Italian academics Cesare Pitto, Vito Teti and Lombardi Satriani also spoke at this event. At this meeting the proceedings of the first Vancouver conference published as Writers in Transition, ed. C.D. Minni and Anna Ciampolini Foschi was launched. Mary di Michele was elected president of AICW.

Aknos. Fulvio Caccia (Book Cover)

In September the Bressani Prize was awarded to Nino Ricci for his first novel, Lives of the Saints (1990). In January 1991 Nino's novel won the Governor General's Award for English Fiction. It was the first time an Italian-Canadian writer had won any GG award. In 1994 Fulvio Caccia won a GG award for French poetry with Aknos. In 1997 Aknos came out in English with Guernica Editions.

The fourth national conference was held at the Istituto Italiano di Cultura in Montreal in November, 1992. Organized by Antonio D'Alfonso and hosted by Lucia Cenerini of the Istituto the meeting focused on the theme, Words and Images in a Multicultural World, and combined literature and film with guest speakers from the U.S. Participants viewed films including Liconti's Brown Bread Sandwiches and Tana's La Sarrasine. Caterina Edwards was elected president of AICW.

The fifth national conference was held in Winnipeg in September, 1994, organized by Caterina Sotiriadis and Sante Viselli. The theme was The Italian Woman in Canadian Literature, and welcomed Italian-American women writers: Mary Jo Bona, Theresa Carilli, and Lucia Chiavola Birnbaum. At this meeting Pasquale Verdicchio was elected President of AICW.

The sixth national conference was held in Toronto & Woodbridge in October, 1996. This event used several venues to reach out to a number of communities. In Toronto we met at the Columbus Centre, the Istituto Italiano di Cultura and the University of Toronto. The U. of T. session was held with writers of colour and had participants from South Asian and West Indian writers. In Woodbridge we met at the Vaughan Library and the Friuli Centre and ended the day with a women's session in Little Italy. Since it was organised from Edmonton by Joe Pivato it required the co-operation of a number of people and organizations particularly Francesca Vahente and Marino Tuzi. Pasquale Verdicchio was re-elected president of AICW.

At this meeting a number of books were launched. Francesco Loriggio edited, Social Pluralism and Literary History (1996) which included some of the papers from the 1992 Ottawa conference as well as a number of other essays. Antonio D'Alfonso produced, In Italics: A defence of ethnicity. (1996).

The seventh national conference was in Vancouver in 1998. The eighth was in Montreal and organized by Licia Canton and Domenic Cusmano.

There have been many other conferences, local symposiums and book launchings with Italian-Canadian writers across Canada. Of note is the annual Italian-Canadian studies symposium held at the University of Toronto each year since 1984. Over the years it has included many writers and publishes the papers in Italian Canadiana, its annual review.

During all this time the publications by Italian-Canadian writers continued to appear, not just in English but also in Italian. Maria Ardizzi has four Italian novels and a collection of poems. Frank Paci's seventh novel, The Rooming-House appeared in 1996. The titles are too numerous to list here though you can find some in the bibliography below. A list of recent publications is also included in each AICW newsletter. You will discover exciting new writers like Marisa De Franceschi with Surface Tension (1994) or rediscover Mary Melfi with Infertility Rites (1991). Mary di Michele will surprise you with Under My Skin (1994).

The Lion’s Mouth. Caterina Edwards (Book Cover)

There are also more articles on, and interviews with Italian-Canadian writers. Many of their books are used in university literature courses and graduate students have written, and are writing M.A. and Ph.D. theses on these authors. At one point there were more theses written in Italian universities on this literature than in Canada, but this has changed. In 1994 Marino Tuzi produced the first Ph.D. thesis in Canada devoted entirely to Italian-Canadian writing. He was awarded a doctorate at York University and published it in a book, The Power of Allegiances (1997).

Rather than try to survey many recent publications I will focus on the work of two writers: Caterina Edwards and Pasquale Verdicchio.

Born in England of an Italian mother and English father Caterina Edwards grew up in Calgary. She has degrees from the University of Alberta where she has taught. In 1982 Edwards brought out The Lion's Mouth, the first novel to deal with Italians in the Prairies. Edwards published a number of short stories about Italians in Canada in literary magazines and anthologies. In 1986 her play Terra Straniera was staged in Edmonton to sold-out audiences at the Fringe Theatre Festival. A powerful and poetic drama it examines Italian immigrants in Edmonton. This play was published as Homeground (1990) with Guernica Editions which brought out a second edition of The Lion's Mouth (1993). Her two novellas, Whiter Shade of Pale, Becoming Emma, appeared in 1992. Caterina Edwards is the most important Italian-Canadian writer in Western Canada.

Originally from Naples Pasquale Verdicchio grew up in Vancouver. He has degrees from the University of Victoria, The University of Alberta and a Ph.D. from UCLA. He now teaches Italian and film studies at UCSD. He published his first collection of poems, Moving Landscape with Guernica Editions in 1985. He has translated and published the work of several Italian poets into English including: Antonio Porta, Giorgio Caproni, Alda Merini and Pasolini. He has published critical studies on Italian and Italian-Canadian literature and on film. At the same time he continues to publish his own poetry: A Critical Geography (1989), Nomadic Trajectory (1990), and Approaches to Absence (1994). He produced a critical new translation of Gramsci's The Southern Question (1995) and a collection of critical essays on literature and film, Devils in Paradise (1997).

In 1998 we published The Anthology of Italian-Canadian Writing which includes more than 50 writers and a wide variety of genres. There is also an anthology of Italian-Canadian women writers edited by Marisa De Franceschi. Francesco Loriggio edited an anthology of Italian-Canadian writers in Italian published in Italy. These critical collections give some flesh to the history sketched out in these pages.

Many of these writers who were once invisible or forgotten are now the subjects of literary studies and anthologies in Canada and Italy. We no longer have to depend on the modest books by Joseph Pivato to explain this literature: Contrasts: Comparative Essays on Italian-Canadian Writing (1985 & 1990) and Echo: Essays on Other Literatures (1994).

Selected Bibliography

For further reading in the area of ethnic minority writing you can choose from among the books listed below:

Amabile, George. Presence of Fire. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982.

_____. Rumours of War. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1995.

Amprimoz, Alexandre. Hard Confessions. Winnipeg: Turnstone Press, 1987.

Ardizzi, Maria. Made in Italy. Toronto: Toma Publishing, 1982.

_____. Tra le colline e di la dal mare. Toronto: Toma, 1990.

Bagnell, Kenneth. Canadese: A Portrait of the Italian Canadians. Toronto: Macmillan, 1989.

Beccarelli Saad, Tiziana. Vers l'Amerique. Montreal: Triptyque, 1988.

Begamudre, Ven & J. Krause, Eds.. Out of Place: Stories and Poems. Regina: Coteau Books, 1991.

Birbalsingh, Frank, Ed.. Jabaji Bhai: An Anthology of Indo-Caribbean Literature. Toronto: TSAR, 1987.

Black, Ayanna. Ed. Fiery Spirits: Canadian Writers of African Descent. Toronto: Harper Collins, 1994.

Borovilos, John, Ed.. Breaking Through: A Canadian Literary Mosaic. Toronto: Prentice-Hall, 1990.

Caccia, Fulvio. Aknos, poems. Toronto: Guernica Editions, 1997.

_____. Interviews with the Phoenix. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

Castrucci, Anello. I miei lontani pascoli. Montreal: Riviera,1984.

Clarke, George Elliott, Ed.. Eyeing the North Star: Directions in African-Canadian Literature. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1997.

Costa, Giovanni. Parlami di, Stelle Fammi sognare / Speak to me of stars, Let me dream. Cap- Saint-Ignace: Marc Veilleux, 1994.

D'Alfonso, Antonio. The Other Shore. Montreal: Guernica, 1985.

_____. Fabrizio's Passion. Toronto: Guernica, 1995.

David, Carole. Impala: novel. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

De Franceschi, Marisa. Surface Tension. Toronto: Guernica, 1994.

De Luca Calce, Fiorella. Toni, Montreal: Guernica, 1990.

_____. Fiorella. Vinnie and Me, Toronto: Guernica, 1996.

Di Cicco, Pier Giorgio, Ed.. Roman Candles, Toronto: Hounslow Press, 1978.

_____. The Tough Romance. 2nd ed.. Toronto: Guernica, 1990.

_____. Virgin Science. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1986.

Di Giovanni, Caroline. Ed. Italian Canadian Voices: An Anthology of Poetry and Prose. Oakville: Mosaic Press, 1984.

Di Michele, Mary. Mimosa and other poems. Oakville: Mosaic Press, 1981.

_____. Stranger in You: poems. Toronto: Oxford U.P., 1995.

_____. Under My Skin: novel. Kingston: Quarry Press, 1994.

Edwards, Caterina. The Lion's Mouth, 2nd. ed.. Toronto: Guernica, 1993.

_____. Homeground. Montreal: Guernica, 1990.

_____. Whiter Shade of Pale, Becoming Emma. Edmonton: NeWest Press, 1992.

Fiorito, Joe. Tango on the Main. Montreal: NuAge, 1996.

Fraticelli, Marco. Voyeur: poems. Montreal: Guernica, 1992.

Gasparini. Len. Ink from an Octopus. Toronto: Hounslow Press, 1989.

Gunn, Genni. Mating in Captivity. Kingston: Quarry Press, 1993.

Harney, Robert F. Ed. Gathering Place: Peoples and Neighbourhoods of Toronto. Toronto: MHSO, 1985.

Hutcheon, Linda. The Canadian Postmodern. Toronto: Oxford U.P. 1988.

_____. Irony's Edge: The Theory and Politics of Irony. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Iacovetta, Franca. Such Hardworking People: Italian Immigrants in Postwar Toronto. Montreal : McGill-Queen's U.P., 1992.

Kamboureli, Smaro. Ed.. Making a Difference: Canadian Multicultural Literature. Toronto: Oxford U.P., 1996.

King, Thomas, Ed.. All My Relations: An Anthology of Contemporary Canadian Native Fiction. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1990.

Loriggio, Francesco. Ed.. Social Pluralism and Literary History. Toronto: Guernica, 1996.
Madott, Darlene. Bottled Roses. Ottawa: Oberon Press, 1985.

Mazza, Antonino. The Way I Remember It. Toronto: Guernica, 1992.

Melfi, Mary. A Bride in Three Acts. Montreal: Guernica, 1983.

_____. Infertiltiy Rites. Toronto: Guernica, 1991.

_____. Stages: Selected Poems. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

Michelut, Dore. Loyalty to the Hunt. Montreal: Guernica, 1986.

_____. Ouroboros: The Book that Ate Me. Montreal: Editions Trois, 1990.

Micone, Marco. Two Plays. Montreal: Guernica, 1988.

_____. Beyond the Ruins. Toronto: Guernica, 1995.

Minni, C.D. Other Selves. Montreal: Guernica, 1985.

_____, Ed.. Ricordi: Things Remembered. Montreal: Guernica, 1989.

Mirolla, Michael. The Formal Logic of Emotion. Montreal: NuAge Editions, 1991.

Norris, Ken. Whirlwinds. Montreal: Guernica, 1988.

Oliva, Peter. Drowning in Darkness. Dunvegan: Cormorant Books, 1993.

Paci, F.G. Black Madonna. Ottawa: Oberon Press, 1982.

_____. Under the Bridge. Ottawa: Oberon Press, 1992.

_____. The Rooming-House. Ottawa: Oberon Press, 1996.

Patriarca, Gianna. Italian Women and other tragedies. Toronto: Guernica Editions, 1994.

_____. Daughters For Sale. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

Perin, Roberto & F. Sturino, Eds.. Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada. Montreal: Guernica, 1989.

Perticarini, Romano. Via Diaz. Montreal: Guernica, 1989.

Petrone, Penny. Breaking the Mould. Toronto: Guernica, 1995.

Pivato, Joseph. Echo: Essays on Other Literatures. Toronto: Guernica, 1994.

Principe, Concetta. Stained Glass. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

Ramirez, Bruno. Les Premiers Italiens de Montreal. Montreal: Boreal, 1984.

Razzolini, Esperanza Maria. All Our Fathers: The North Italian Colony in Industrial Cape Breton. Halifax: St. Mary's University, 1983.

Ricci, Nino. Lives of the Saints. Dunvegan: Cormorant Books, 1990.

_____. In a Glass House. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1993.

Rossi, Vittorio. Two Plays, Little Blood Brothers and Backstreets. Montreal: NuAge, 1989.

Salvatore, Filippo. Suns of Darkness. Montreal: Guernica, 1980.

_____. La Fresque de Mussolini. Montreal : Guernica, 1985.

_____. Fascism and the Italians of Montreal. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

Sturino, Franc. Forging the Chain: Southern Italian Migration. Toronto: MHSO, 1990
Tana, Paul & B. Ramirez. Sarrasine. Toronto: Guernica, 1996.

Tuzi, Marino. The Power of Allegiances: essays. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

Verdicchio, Pasquale. Moving Landscape. Montreal: Guernica, 1985.

_____. Nomadic Trajectory. Montreal: Guernica, 1990.

_____. Devils in Paradise: essays. Toronto: Guernica, 1997.

Viselli, Sante. Le Pendule. Edmonton: Rediscovery Press, 1993.

Welch, Liliane. Manstorna: Life on the Mountains. Charlottetown: Ragweed Press, 1985.

_____. Word-House of a Grandchild. Charlottetown: Ragweed Press, 1987.

_____. Life In Another Language. Dunvegan: Cormorant, 1992.

Zagolin, Bianca. Une femme a la fenetre. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1988.

Ziolkoski, Carmen L. The House of Four Winds. Sarnia: River City Press, 1987.

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